An epidural hematoma (EDH) is a blood clot that forms in the brain after a head injury. Seventy-five percent of the instances result in a skull fracture. An open skull fracture that rips the main meningeal artery is the most common cause of bleeding in the head and brain. An EDH might arise on occasion as a result of blood leaking from a vein.
- 1 What is an epidural hematoma caused by?
- 2 Where does an epidural hematoma occur?
- 3 What artery causes subdural hematoma?
- 4 What is the main source of bleeding in extradural hematomas?
- 5 Is epidural hematoma venous or arterial?
- 6 How do you tell the difference between SDH and EDH?
- 7 Where are subdural and epidural hematomas located?
- 8 What causes lucid interval in epidural hematoma?
- 9 Why is EDH a Biconvex?
- 10 What vessel is ruptured subdural hematoma?
- 11 What vessels affect subdural hematoma?
- 12 Where are bridging veins?
- 13 Does epidural hematoma cross the midline?
- 14 What is the difference between extradural and subdural hematoma?
- 15 Why is mannitol contraindicated in EDH?
What is an epidural hematoma caused by?
An epidural hematoma (EDH) arises when blood collects between the skull and the dura mater, which is the thick membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord. They are most commonly caused by a skull fracture that rips a blood artery under the surface of the skull. EDHs are roughly half as prevalent as subdural hematomas and mainly occur in young people, according to the American Academy of Neurology.
Where does an epidural hematoma occur?
An epidural hematoma (EDH) is a collection of blood that has formed between the interior of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (the dura mater) (called the dura).
What artery causes subdural hematoma?
A subdural hematoma produced by the rupture of a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm is a serious medical condition.
What is the main source of bleeding in extradural hematomas?
The most common source of bleeding is an artery tear in the middle meningeal artery, which occurs most frequently. EDHs are generally biconvex in form, and herniation can generate a mass effect as a result of their size.
Is epidural hematoma venous or arterial?
Epidural hematomas are primarily caused by arterial bleeding, however they can also occur as a result of venous hemorrhage in one-third of patients. Epidural hematomas are occasionally caused by ripped venous sinuses, which are most commonly found in the parietal-occipital area and the posterior fossa. These injuries are often less severe and have a more benign course of action.
How do you tell the difference between SDH and EDH?
Approximately one-third of patients suffer from epidural hematomas, which are typically caused by arterial bleeding. The parietal-occipital area and the posterior fossa are the most common sites where epidural hematomas are caused by ruptured venous sinuses. These injuries are usually less severe and have a more benign course of treatment.
Where are subdural and epidural hematomas located?
An epidural hemorrhage is located outside (on top) of the dura mater (epi is Greek for upon), whereas a subdural hematoma is located within (underneath) of the dura mater (sub is Greek for below) and outside of the arachnoid mater (arachnoid is Greek for beneath). Traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage is a third type of hematoma that can occur as a result of a head injury.
What causes lucid interval in epidural hematoma?
When a patient is initially knocked unconscious due to a concussive head injury that results in a linear skull fracture affecting the main meningeal artery or one of its branches, a lucid period might develop.
Why is EDH a Biconvex?
On a CT scan, the vast majority of EDHs may be distinguished. This condition is distinguished by a biconvex or lens-shaped mass on brain CT scan, which is caused by the restricted capacity of blood to expand inside the fixed connection of the dura to the cranial sutures within the dura mater. EDHs do not cross suture lines in any way.
What vessel is ruptured subdural hematoma?
The meninges’ primary function is to cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. You have a subdural hematoma if a blood vessel in your brain has been damaged, most usually in a vein, and blood is spilling out of the injured vessel into the area under the dura mater membrane layer.
What vessels affect subdural hematoma?
What are the causes of subdural hemorrhages? In the subdural space (the space between the skull and the brain), a blood artery is injured, resulting in a subdural haematoma (blood pooling). As the blood artery ruptures, it causes the creation of a blood clot (haematoma), which puts pressure on the brain and causes it to get damaged.
Where are bridging veins?
In the subarachnoid area, there are veins that penetrate the dura mater and empty into the dural venous sinuses, which are veins that drain into the spinal canal.
Does epidural hematoma cross the midline?
They do not cross the midline at any point. The inside side of an SDH is typically concave, with the concave side towards the brain (epidural hematomas are convex on the inward side).
What is the difference between extradural and subdural hematoma?
Extradural haematoma (EDH) is a blood clot that forms on the outside of the brain’s natural covering (the ‘dura mater’), whereas acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) is a blood clot that forms on the inner surface of the dura mater and appears within the first few days after a traumatic brain injury (such as a concussion).
Why is mannitol contraindicated in EDH?
Mannitol has been shown to pass through and accumulate in the brain, creating a reverse osmotic shift or rebound effect and elevating brain osmolarity, resulting in an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Patient’s with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and renal failure should not be given mannitol because of the danger of pulmonary edema and heart failure.